Methodological notes

System of national accounts (SNA) represents the system of interconnected statistical indicators built in the form of a certain set of accounts and tables characterizing the results of economic activity of the country.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the value of final goods and services produced by the resident units of the country during the accounting period in final purchasers' prices. It can be computed as the sum of value added of all industries or institutional sectors plus net taxes on products. GDP can be also defined as the sum of primary incomes payable by the resident producers to the participants of the production (both residents and non-residents): compensation of employees, net taxes on production and imports, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income.

GDP computed by final use method represents the sum of final consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, net acquisition of valuables and net exports of goods and services.

GDP is closely related to other important aggregates of the SNA: gross national income and gross national disposable income.

International comparisons of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) of the Commonwealth of Independent States in International Comparison Programme (ICP) UN. The main purpose of the ICP UN is to estimate the GDP of various countries and its final expenditure components in common currency using purchasing power parities in order to secure their comparability.

For the comparison the GDP is broken down into main components in conformity with the expenditure classification of the System of National Accounts (SNA):

Actual household final consumption:

  • Final consumption expenditure of households-residents;
  • Final consumption expenditure of the general government on individual goods and services;
  • Final consumption expenditure of non-profit institutions serving households;

Actual final consumption of the general government (collective services).

Gross fixed capital formation.

Change in inventories and net acquisition of valuables.

Net exports of goods and services.

The main components of GDP are broken down into the expenditure categories and groups subdivided into basic headings, for each of them necessary quantity goods and services is selected.

Countries - participants prepare and agree on the product specification for each item selected for the common list of consumer and investment goods (services) - representatives. After the price information has been collected PPPs for basic headings are calculated for each pair of countries. At the aggregated level PPP is calculated using Laspeyres-Paashe indices, average group PPPs and weights of commodity groups in national currency. Fisher index (geometric average of the two above indices) is computed to achieve the single result of bilateral comparisons. Then the EKS method is used to achieve the transitive result of comparisons.

Residents are enterprises, organizations and households participating in the economic activity at the economic territory of the country during long period (not less than a year). The economic territory of the country is the territory which is administratively governed by the government of the given country and within which persons, goods and money can move freely; it does not include the territorial enclaves of other countries (embassies, military bases, etc.) or international organizations but includes the enclaves of the given country at the territory of other countries.

Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of the primary income received by the residents of the country as remuneration for their participation in production of the GDP of the given country and the countries of the rest of the world. GNI differs from the GDP by the balance of primary income (labour income and property income) receivable from the rest of the world.

Gross national disposable income (GNDI) is the sum of the primary incomes and current transfers received by the residents of the given country.

GNDI differs from the GNI by the balance of current transfers receivable from the rest of the world.

Compensation of employees represents a remuneration in money and in kind payable by employers to employees for the job performed during the accounting period. It is computed on an accrual basis and consists of the two following components: i) wages and salaries (before deduction of taxes); ii) social contributions by employers.

Taxes on production and imports are compulsory, non-compensated, unrequited payments levied by the government on the producing units in connection with the production, sales and imports of goods and services or the use of factors of production. They consist of taxes on products and other taxes on production.

Taxes on products are taxes payable proportionally to the quantity or value of goods and services produced, sold or imported by a producing resident unit. They include the following most wide-spread taxes: value added tax (VAT) on domestic and imported goods and services and other value added type taxes, excises and duty stamps on sales of certain goods, taxes on certain types of services, taxes on exports and imports, etc.

Other taxes on production are taxes connected with the use of factors of production as well as licence fees and payments for permission to perform some productive activity or other obligatory payments necessary for performance of a producing resident units. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process or for the right to exercise certain activities or transactions.

Net taxes are taxes less subsidies.

Subsidies on production and imports are current non-compensated unrequited payments payable by the government to enterprises in connection with the production, sales and imports of goods and services or the use of the factors of production for pursuing certain economic and social policy. They include only current payments from the government directly to market producing resident units.

Subsidies on production and imports consist of the subsidies on products and other subsidies on production.

Subsidies on products are subsidies payable per unit of a good or service, that is proportionally to the quantity or value of goods and services produced, sold or imported by resident enterprises. They include, for example, subsidies from the state budget to industrial, agricultural, housing, communal transport enterprises; reimbursement from the state budget the difference in prices on fuel and tariffs on heat to energy supplying enterprises, mines, etc.; subsidies on food stuff, coal, animal products sold at prices established by the government; subsidies on exports and imports payable to trade organizations, etc.

Other subsidies on production consist of subsidies payable by the government to enterprises in connection with the use of the factors of production. They include subsidies payable for the employment of particular types of persons (handicapped, teenagers), subsidies to reduce pollution and subsidies for the use of other factors of production, for example, to stimulate using certain types of raw materials, energy, etc.

Operating surplus is a part of value added which is at disposal of producers (corporations) after deduction of compensation of employees and net taxes on production and imports. Operating surplus can be computed both on gross and net basis, that is before and after deduction of consumption of fixed capital.

Mixed income is a part of value added of unincorporated enterprises which is at their disposal after deduction of compensation of employees and net other taxes on production. It contains the elements of both remuneration of labour input by the members of households which are owners of unincorporated enterprises and operating surplus of these enterprises. Mixed income can be computed both on gross and net basis, that is before and after deduction of consumption of fixed capital.

Final consumption expenditure refers to expenditure by households-residents on consumer goods and services as well as to expenditure by the general government and non-profit institutions serving households on goods and services for individual and collective consumption.

Final consumption expenditure of households refers to their expenditure on consumer goods and services financed out of their income.

Final consumption expenditure of the general government and non-profit institutions serving households are taken equal to the cost of production of their services (including the consumption of fixed capital).

Goods and services for individual consumption are provided by the budgetary units in the field of health care, social security, education, culture and art and by the non-profit institutions serving households.

Services for collective consumption are provided by the budgetary units in the field of the general administration, defence, science and so forth.

Gross national saving is a part of the GNDI which is not spent on final consumption.

Gross capital formation consists of the following components: i) gross fixed capital formation; ii) change in inventories and iii) net acquisition of valuables.

Gross fixed capital formation is defined to include: i) acquisition, less withdrawals, of new and existing fixed assets; ii) outlays on improvement of non-produced tangible assets (melioration, draining and so forth, development and expanding of mines, forests, plantations and other agricultural assets); iii) transfer costs associated with transfer of ownership of non-produced assets (payments of fees to lawyers, dealers and agents dealing with the real estate and to other intermediaries, duties, commission fees, taxes and so forth).

Change in inventories refers to change in value of stocks of materials and supplies, work-in-progress, finished goods and goods for resale with the adjustment for holding gain (loss).

Net acquisition of valuables is the value of acquisition, less withdrawals, of assets (objects) purchased as means of storage of value: precious metals and stones, objects of antiques, collections and objects of art.

Net national lending (borrowing) is the balance between the resources available for financing capital outlays and the outlays on the acquisition of non-financial assets. At the level of the economy as a whole net lending (net borrowing) refers to the amount of resources which the country can lend to the rest of the world or which the rest of the world can lend to the given country.

Fixed capital (fixed assets) refers to buildings, structures, machinery and equipment, vehicles, tools, instruments, livestock and other types of fixed assets.

Fixed assets are valued at replacement cost (gross or net), that is the value of fixed assets at current market prices. Gross replacement value is computed before deduction of accumulated wear and tear. The net replacement value is computed by deducting accumulated amount of wear and tear from the gross replacement value. If the data on the replacement value are not available the book value (in prices at the moment of acquisition of assets) is used.

Consumption of fixed capital represents the decline, during the course of the accounting period, in the current value of the stock of fixed assets as a result of physical deterioration, normal obsolence or normal accidental damage.

State budget shows the monetary relations between the government and juridical and physical persons in the process of redistribution of national income connected with the formation and use of the budget fund designed for financing national economy, social and cultural arrangements, defence and general administration. Revenue and expenditure of the state budget include the data of consolidated (regional and local) budgets. Items of the state budget revenue and expenditure show the data by the levels of the general government: federal, regional and local.

State budget revenue includes monetary payments to the state budget by enterprises, organizations and population. They refer to taxes and similar compulsory payments, non-tax payments (such as proceeds from sale of assets and privatization) and grants received from institutions of other levels of the general government and international organizations. The consolidated state budget revenue includes the revenue of the federal budget, of the budgets of the governments of the regions (autonomous republics, districts and so forth) and of the local authorities budgets.

Tax is the compulsory contribution of the payer to the state budget and extra-budgetary funds of certain size and on certain date specified by the legislation. Reflects monetary relations between the government and juridical and physical persons connected with redistribution of the national income and accumulation of financial resources in the state budgetary and extra-budgetary funds.

Tax on profit (of enterprises and organizations). Taxation object is the gross profit (before taxes) of an enterprise (the sum of the profit or loss from sales of output (goods and services), fixed assets, other assets of an enterprise and earnings from transactions other than sales less outlays referring to these transactions).

Tax on income of physical persons. Taxation object for physical persons is the total income received in the calendar year. For taxation purposes the total income received both in cash (in national or foreign currency) and in kind is accounted. The size of the total annual income subject to taxation is defined in accordance with the order and terms established by legislation.

Value added tax represents the part of the value added withdrawn to the state budget which is generated at all stages of production and is defined as the difference between the value of goods and services produced and the value of goods and services entirely consumed in the production process. Taxation objects are turnovers from sales of goods and services at the state territory.

Excises are indirect taxes included into the price of goods and payable by a purchaser. The state legislation establishes the order of excise taxation of the sold alcoholic beverages, beer, sturgeon and salmon caviar, seafood, chocolate, tobacco products, tyres, motor cars, jewellery, diamonds, high quality porcelain and crystal goods, carpets, furs, garments from natural leather, etc.

Revenue from external economic activity is non-tax revenue from centralized exports and other revenue from external economic activity.

Revenue from external economic activity includes revenue as follows: from import and export custom duty; from state lending to other countries; from custom control and services; other revenue. Beginning from the data for 1995 import and export custom duty are excluded from the revenue from external economic activity because they are allocated to the item "Taxes on international trade and external transactions" which is not shown in the compendium.

Revenue from privatizing public and municipal enterprises and organizations is earnings from sales of privatized objects and receipts during the process of privatization.

Revenue from sales of state bonds and other securities includes earnings from sales of state lottery-loan bonds; state treasury obligations distributed between households; state short-term bonds; gold certificate; other receipts.

State budget expenditure includes outlays designed to finance various functions carried out by the state (defence, education, health care, development of economy and so forth). Also is included the lending (minus the repayment), that is loans and similar types of lending provided by the government to other sectors of economy or to the rest of the world. The expenditure of the consolidated budget includes outlays of all respective levels of the general government (the federal government, the governments of the regions and local authorities).

Expenditure on financing the economy includes expenditure on industries producing goods and services in accordance with the adopted in the country budgetary classification. The bulk of this expenditure is designed for financing capital investment in the public sector of the economy and subsidizing enterprises.

Expenditure on financing social and cultural measures affords the state to develop the system of education, to finance the culture, to satisfy the minimum demand of population for medical services, to provide the social defence of population, to raise the level of their social security.

Expenditure on defence represents purchases of armament and war technique, expenditure on current maintenance of arm forces and navy, financing the research and development, military construction, pensions to servicemen, etc.

Expenditure on administration are designed for perfoming management and organizational functions by the government and are connected with the specific sphere of administrative activities. This expenditure is the material and financial basis of the general government activity.

Expenditure on maintenance of law bodies, courts and procurator's offices is the expenditure on maintening the internal affairs bodies, state security bodies, courts and procurator's offices.

Expenditure on external economic activity refers to state lending the foreign states, payments on state loans received from the foreign states, purchases of foreign currencies, etc.

Deficit of the state budget refers to the excess of the total state budget expenditure over the total state budget revenue.

Proficit of the state budget is the excess of the budget revenue over its expenditure.

Balance sheet profit (loss) refers to the general financial results of activities of enterprises including profit from sale of output, from sale of assets as well as from non-commercial transactions (fines, penalties, interest and so forth), losses from extraordinary events such as fires, floods, losses due to cancellation of debts and so forth.

Profit from sale of output is defined as the difference between proceeds (gross income) from the sale of output and cost of production, VAT and similar taxes, other expenses and allowances which are to be excluded from the proceeds in accordance with the current legislation to determine profit.

Insurance premiums refer to the payments of an insurant due to an insurer (an insurance organization) for the insurance services in accordance with the insurance contract or legislation.

Insurance claims refer to the sums payable by an insurer to an insurant, a beneficiary or third parties when the insurance case occurs.

Insurance premiums and insurance claims are computed in accordance with the methodology of compiling book-keeping and statistical reports of insurance companies.

Earnings and outlays of insurance companies are the indicators of financial results of their performance and use of these results which are computed in accordance with the methodology of compiling book-keeping and statistical reports of insurance companies.

Monetary aggregates are the indicators of volume and structure of money in circulation. Total money in circulation consists of :

M0 = holdings of cash (outside of banking system),

M1 = M0 plus deposits by demand by households to saving banks, deposits by households and enterprises to other banks, the amounts of money on current and special accounts of enterprises and organizations,

M2 = M1 plus deposits to saving accounts of saving banks,

M3 = M2 plus depository certificates issued by banks, state bonds and other securities issued by banks and the state.

Indices of producers' prices of industrial output refer to changes of producers' prices of industrial output. They are computed on the basis of the observation of changes of these prices by registering prices of commodities-representatives. This observation is carried out with regard to the enterprises included in the sample survey.

Aggregated indices for branches of industries and industry as a whole are computed by using the data on the structure of industrial production in the preceding year as the weights.

Price indices of sales of agricultural products (all channels of sales) refer to changes of prices of sales of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises and other producers of major agricultural products. The indices are computed on the basis of data on sales of agricultural products by agricultural enterprises (broken down by channels of sales and types of products) in accounting period and actual prices realised in accounting and basis periods.

Consumer price index (CPI) shows change over the period of time of value of the basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households. It represents a ratio of current value of the basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households in the base period to its value expressed in prices of the base period (as a rule, in prices of preceeding month or year) and does not reflect the impact of changes in income, quantity and structure of consumption of population. The index is computed with the help of Laspeyres formula on the basis of individual indices of consumer prices and tariffs of goods and services included in the basket; these individual price indices are normally calculated on the basis of monthly registration of prices and tariffs of commodities-representatives. The structure of consumption expenditure in the base period is used for weighting individual price indices; this structure is established on the basis of the households budget surveys. In some CIS countries in addition to overall consumer price index some variants of the CPI are computed on the basis of a restricted basket of consumer goods and services, for example, excluding expensive items which are not a part of everyday consumption (e.g. delicatessen items, jewellery and so forth). The CPI can be calculated separately with respect to foodstuffs, non-food products and services.

Exports of goods refer to the value of goods taken out from the economic territory of the given country and as a result the material resources of the residents of the given country are reduced. The principle criterium of the registration of exports is the change of ownership, however, in practice the fact of crossing the borders of the countries is often used as a criterium. Exports are valued in current prices both in national currency and in US dollars. Exports are valued in fob prices (franko-port of the country-exporter) or in daf prices (franko-border of the country-exporter). Fob prices (free on board) include the cost, freight and insurance on the board of the ship. Conversion of exports in US dollars is carried out with the help of exchange rates quoted by the central bank of the country as of the date of receiving custom cargo declaration.

Commodity nomenclature of external economic activities of the CIS countries is used for classifying exported goods.

Imports of goods refer to the value of goods taken to the economic territory of the given country and as a result the material resources of the residents of the given country are increased. The major criterium of the registration of imports is the change of ownership, however, in practice the fact of crossing the borders of the countries is often used as a criterium. Imports are valued in current prices both in national currency and in US dollars. Imports are valued in cif prices (franko-port of the country-importer) or in cip prices (franko-point of destination at the border of the country-importer). Cif prices (cost, insurance, freight) include the value of goods and expenses on insurance and transportation of goods to the port of the country-importer. Conversion of imports in US dollars is carried out with the help of exchange rates quoted by the central bank of the country as of the date of receiving custom cargo declaration.

Commodity nomenclature of external economic activities of the CIS countries is used for classifying imported goods.

Balance of external trade is the difference between exports valued in fob prices and imports in cif prices.

Exchange rate - the price of the monetary unit of the given national currency expressed in monetary units of the currency of the other country. The exchange rates of national currencies of the CIS countries against US dollar and the rouble of the Russian Federation are established by the central banks of the countries.

Volume of industrial production (in value terms) refers to the total output of industrial establishments of both industrial and non-industrial enterprises and organizations.

Output of an industrial establishment is defined to include the value of finished goods and sale of semi-finished goods (produced both from own materials and materials of customers) as well as the value of industrial works performed by orders of various customers including non-industrial establishments of the enterprise. Excluded from the output are the goods used for own production within the establishment.

The output is valued at current and constant prices.

Volume indices of industrial output are computed on the basis of valuation of output at constant prices.

In some countries the computation of those indices is based on information on output of selected commodities-representatives in physical units with aggregation of the individual indices in order to obtain index-numbers for industry as a whole or some branches of industry. In some countries value added data are used for aggregation purposes.

Indices for long periods are computed with the help of chained indices method.

Industrial output in physical units refers to output of specific types of industrial products in physical units. The output, as a rule, is recorded including products used as input within the given enterprise.

Output of consumer goods refers to total output of consumer goods including output of food stuff, alcoholic beverages and non-food commodities in producers' prices.

Volume indices of output of consumer goods are computed on the basis of information on the output in constant prices.

Total land space includes all agricultural land (arable land, perennial plants, meadows, pasture grounds, etc.) and non-agricultural land (forests, swamps, lands under the water, under constructions, streets, other lands not used in agriculture, etc.).

Sowing area under agricultural crops refers to the land under the crops by the end of sowing of spring crops. The sowing area includes winter sowing area made in the autumn of the preceding year less the area under the crops perished during the autumn-winter period, all spring sowing area of the current year including sowing over the areas of the perished crops as well as areas of permanent meadows sown during the preceding years.

Gross production of crops refers to the crops harvested from the lands under different agricultural crops, agricultural plantations and other agricultural lands within one agricultural holding or any territorial unit. Gross production of crops is determined both with respect of individual types of crops and groupings of crops: spring and winter rye, spring and winter wheat, spring and winter barley, spring and winter legiminous crops, vegetables, melons and gourdes and other types of crops. Gross production of most types of crops is shown in physical units; production of grain, seeds of flax, castor-oil plant, soy-beans is shown in the weights after processing.

Production of crops per unit of land refers to average production of crops per unit of land. The indicator is computed per one hectare of spring productive land as well as per one hectare of actually harvested land.

Number of livestock and poultry is registered by major types of livestock (cattle, of which cows, pigs, sheeps and goats, etc.) in all categories of agricultural producers (agricultural enterprises, personal plots of households, farms, etc.).

Production of animal products includes production of meat (slaughtering weight) by type: beef, pork, mutton, meat of goats, horses, deers, camels, meat of poultry and rabbits; production of milk, eggs, wool (physical weight), honey and other animal products.

Sales of agricultural products refer to sales of major agricultural products by agricultural enterprises and by other producers of agricultural products to procurement organizations, consumers cooperatives, at the free market, through barter, commodity exchange, auctions, sales to catering units as well as to goods provided to employees as wages in kind and other channels (in kind and in value terms).

Farms are the entities which on the basis of ownership by individuals, families or groups of individuals of land and other types of property (or lease of the land and other types of property) carry out production, processing and sale of agricultural products. The number of farms and the agricultural land space used by them are determined as of the moment of registration by local government bodies.

Investment in fixed capital includes outlays on construction and installation; on acquisition of machinery and equipment (which requires and does not require installation); implements and tools included in the budgets of construction; other capital outlays. Data on volume of investment in fixed capital are shown excluding outlays on acquisition of equipment, buildings, structures (or their parts) which were previously registered as fixed assets owned by other enterprises and institutions.

Fixed assets put into operation refer to the value of completed by construction and put into operation buildings and structures, machinery, means of transportation of all types, equipment which requires and does not require installation; value of tools, implements and other objects allocated to fixed assets; value of perennial plantations (orchards, vineyards and so forth); value of oil and gas wells, as well as exploration wells which are intended to be put into operation; capital outlays on improvement of land and similar outlays associated with increase of value of fixed assets. Fixed assets put into operation are shown in current market prices.

Productive capacities put into operation refer to capacities of newly constructed and completed enterprises as well as to increases in capacities obtained as a result of reconstruction and technical renovation of enterprises financed from all sources. The data refer to magnitudes shown in special acts of registration, as a rule, in physical units, for example, capacity for production of coal, steel are shown in thousand tons, capacity for production of shoes are shown in million pairs; in some cases data on capacities put into operation are shown in value terms. The workshops or similar sections of enterprises which are under construction in which production did not start yet are not included in this category.

Freight transportation carried out by general use transport refers to the total volume of cargoes expressed in tons carried by the general use transport.

The data are shown by major types of transport and with regard to the railway transportation - by width of track.

The volume of cargoes is recorded for all types of transportation except for car transportation as of the moment of shipment; with regard to car transportation data refer to the moment of arrival of cargoes.

The moment of shipment of cargoes is considered as a moment of accepting cargoes for transportation. The volume of cargoes transported (by shipment) is computed as the total weight of all cargoes (including tare) accepted for transportation. Quantities of cargoes to be transported are determined on the basis of the relevant transportation documents.

Shipment of cargoes from an individual railway station (port) is determined as the total cargoes accepted from customers as well as arrived from other types of transportation for continuation of hauling, from foreign railway stations, etc.

Freight turnover refers to the volume of work performed by transportation and measured in ton-kilometres (in sea transportation - in ton-miles). The indicator is computed as the sum of each shipment of cargo in tons multiplied by the relevant distance of transportation.

Transportation of passengers refers to the number of passengers carried at the accounting period by all types of transport including trains, ships, planes, buses as well as subway, trams, trolleybuses, taxis and so forth.

The indicator is computed as the total number of passengers carried by all transport means both within the country and in international transportation irrespective of types of tariffs applied and including passengers enjoyed the right of free transportation.

Passenger turnover refers to the volume of work performed by transport in connection with transportation of passengers and is measured in passenger-kilometres.

Rolling stock of transportation by purpose refers to the number of transportation means as of the end of the year irrespective of their technical condition and location (under repair, expecting repair, leased, under conservation and so forth).

Number of lorries (trucks) refers to the lorries of general use transport (which are equipped with the special open platforms both with and without boards) as well as the specialized lorries designed for hauling specified types of cargoes: dump trucks, refrigerators, cars carrying cement, timber, containers, pipes, and so forth. Special types of cars on the basis of lorries, such as tank-lorries and others, are not included in this category and are shown separately as specialized cars.

Total retail trade turnover refers to sales of goods to households for final consumption and other types of uses in households. It is computed on the basis of the reports submitted by trading organizations and catering enterprises (all types of property and institutional arrangements) as well as by enterprises and organisations other than trade units (industrial, transport, etc.). It includes sales for cash and through non-cash settlements, sales of selected food products to hospitals, children institutions and other socially oriented institutions except Russia.

Retail trade turnover of all channels of sales also includes sales (on the basis of estimates by national statistical services) of goods by individuals at the free markets (non-food, food and mixed markets).

Sales of services to households refers to the payments received by enterprises from households (population) for services provided both in cash and non-cash forms including VAT, excises and similar types of taxes on products.

Included are the services rendered by enterprises (organizations) irrespective of the type of ownership and organizational subordination to households for satisfying their cultural, social, medical, judicial and other needs.

Prior 1991 sale of services included value of forestry and construction materials sold to households at the places of their work. Commencing 1991 sales of above mentioned items are not included in the sale of services but included in retail trade turnover.

Sale of services is subdivided in the following groupings: everyday and personal services, passanger transportation services, communication services, housing and communal services, educational services, nurseries and similar preschool institutions services, tourist and sanatorium services, cultural services, medical services, physical culture and sport services, judicial services, services of banks, other services.

Number of burses includes commodity burses, stock exchanges, burses of foreign currency, burses for transactions with real estate and other types of burses (except for labour burses).

A burse is an enterprise which has a status of a legal entity participating in formation of the wholesale market of finished goods, raw materials, securities, foreign currency and other items by organizing and regulating trade in the form of open public trade transactions carried out according to the established rules.

Number of transactions carried out at burses - the number of documentally registered in accordance with the established rules contracts of sale-purchase between sellers and buyers.

Turnover of a burse refers to the overall value of transactions carried out during the accounting period; it is computed in prices existing at the moment of a transaction (excluding VAT) and refers to the total value of the items sold (commodities, securities, foreign currency, real estate objects and others).

De facto population - population made up of the persons staying in the given territory on census day, including temporary visitors.

In the period between censuses the present population current estimate is made on the basis of census data and taking into account the information of current demographic events registration.

Resident population - population made up of the persons habitually living in the given territory, including residents temporarily absent. In the period between censuses the resident population current estimate is made on the base of census data and taking into account the information of current demographic events registration.

Urban population - all residents of areas stated by legislative acts as cities (or towns), urban settlements, worker towns, resort and country settlements constitute the urban population.

Rural population - all residents of rural areas constitute the rural population. Settlements not classified as urban are considered to be rural.

Mid - year population is computed by averaging estimates as of the beginning and the end of a calendar year.

Natural increase of population - is the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths during a certain period. It can have a positive sign if births exceed deaths or a negative sign if the opposite is true.

Natural increase rate is a difference between crude birth rate and crude death rate.

Crude birth rate is a rate measuring the frequency of childbearing in total population. It is calculated as the number of live births during the year divided by the mid-year population. It is frequently expressed as births per 1,000 population.

Crude death rate is a rate measuring the frequency of deaths in population. It is calculated as the number of deaths during the year divided by the mid-year population. It is frequently expressed as deaths per 1,000 population.

Infant mortality rate is a rate measuring the frequency of infant deaths. It is computed as a ratio of the number of deaths under one year of age to the number of live births. So long as there can be the infants born in the previous calendar year among the infants died in the current calendar year, this ratio for a given year is often computed to the infants born in the current calendar year and to the infants born in the previous calendar year.

Infant mortality rate is computed by the formula:






IMR = (




) * 1,000,






where M0 - is the number of deaths at the age under 1 of born in the year for which the rate was computed;
M1 - the number of deaths at the age under 1 of born in the previous year;
N0 - is the number of births in the year for which the rate was computed;
N1 - the number of births in the previous year.

Net migration - is the difference between the total number of persons arriving in a given area during a certain period and the total number of persons departing from it. Net migration can have a negative or a positive sign; the definition "net inmigration" is used when arrivals exceed departures, and "net outmigration" when the opposite is true.

Population growth - the increase or decrease of population in a period. The annual growth is the difference of population estimates as of the beginning and the end of a calendar year. The population growth consists of the natural increase and net migration. If the excess deaths over births or emigrants over immigrants takes place then it can be population decline instead of growth.

Total labour resources refer to the part of the population which is able to work. Includes economically active population as well as other categories of persons able to work which at the given moment do not work and do not seek the job including those who study.

Economically active population includes the total number of employed and unemployed.

Number of employed includes both employees (irrespective whether it is permanent, temporal, seasonal, incidental, etc.) and self-employed persons in all sectors of economy. Thus, this category includes persons who are employed in public enterprises and organizations, in cooperatives of all types, in private enterprises and enterprises of mixed type of ownership, in farms and so forth, including those engaged in individual labour activities, in personal plots of households and employed by individuals (families) as domestic servants.

This category includes both persons who actually work and those temporarily absent from the work due to different reasons (illness, vacations, etc.).

Number of persons who do not have employment and applied to employment offices. This category includes persons able to work who are seeking a job and applied to employment offices. This category includes both persons who have official status of unemployed and persons who did not receive this status yet.

Number of unemployed registered by employment offices. This indicator shows the scale of official unemployment (the number of unemployed in accordance with the established rules and definitions).

Unemployed are the persons of certain age level adopted by the national legislation (the 16 years age has been adopted at the territory of the former USSR as the lower limit of age of persons able to work) which in the given period did not have any job, were seeking the job with the help of official employment services or individually and were prepared to start working immediately or during the period specified in legislation.

Number of unemployed receiving unemployment allowances. The unemployment allowances are paid to the persons aged 16 and more, registered by employment offices and who have a status of unemployed. The unemployed persons who are not illegible for unemployment allowances include the persons who did not accept suggested jobs, violated rules of registration, received allowances illegally and so on.

Number of vacancies claimed by enterprises to employment offices is an indicator characterizing the demand for labour force.

Money income of population includes wages and salaries, bonuses, allowances for business trips and similar income paid by the enterprises to the employees, social benefits to households (such as pensions, allowances, stipends), proceeds from sale of agricultural products produced by households, receipts from the financial system and so forth. Included cash and non-cash receipts.

Money expenditure of population includes expenditure on purchases by households of goods and services, payments of taxes, other compulsory payments and fees, miscellaneous items.

Saving of population refers (when it is computed on the basis of the balance of money income and expenditure of population) to increase in deposits by households, purchases of bonds and other securities, purchases of foreign currency and increase in holdings of cash owned by population. This flow is computed as the difference between money income of population and money expenditure on purchases of goods and services and payments of taxes including similar compulsory payments. Thus the content of this flow differs from the similar category in the SNA.

Accumulated saving of population refer to a stock of financial assets, such as holdings of cash, deposits, securities, other than shares, shares and other types of financial assets, held by households as of certain date, usually as of the beginning and the end of the year. In practice, this category is restricted by holdings of cash, deposits and securities (other than shares).

Average monthly nominal wage is determined by dividing the nominal wage fund by the number of employees on payroll.

The wage fund includes all types of earnings both in money and in kind for working hours as well as for the period of temporal absence from work (for example, annual leave), various bonuses, additional payments as well as occasional reimbursements and compensations assosiated with the special conditions of labour; also included social oriented payments (such as value of free meals, cost of housing services, transportation to the place of job, etc.).

Number of pensioners by type of pensions refers to the number of persons who receive monthly certain amount of money specified in legislation on pension insurance (pension insurance is a form of material support used with respect to persons reached certain age or handicapped persons, survivors; it is financed from social security allowances accumulated by pension funds). This indicator includes pensioners who receive both labour pensions and social pensions. It also includes persons who receive military pensions.

Distinction is made between the following types of pensions:

Designated pensions refer to all labour and social pensions as well as to the pensions received by military personnel and their families;

Labour pensions include the pensions which are paid out to persons reached certain specified age, retirement pensions, survivors' pensions. With respect to survivors' pensions the observation unit in some CIS countries is a family and therefore in such cases total number of pensioners is adjusted by a number of members of households who are not able to work;

Social pensions refer to pensions paid to handicapped from the birth, invalids and aged persons if they are not illegible to labour pensions;

Pensions to military personnel and members of their families include pensions payable by social security organizations to the invalids who are enlisted military personnel or in case of their death to the members of their families.

Average monthly pension is computed as a ratio of total designated monthly pensions payable to all pensioners registered in social security organizations to the number of pensioners. Data on an average pension are shown in groupings by major types of pensions as of the beginning (in some cases as of the end) of the accounting period.

Money income of households refers to all types of money income received by members of households: wages and salaries, income from individual labour and entrepreneurial activities, pensions, stipends, allowances, compensations and other additional payments (including gifts and grants), interest, dividends, rent and other propety income, receipts from sales of goods produced by personal plots of households and other money income. Distinction is normally made between two categories of income: total income, that is the income before payments of taxes and other compulsory payments, and disposal income, that is after deduction of the above mentioned payments.

The structure of money income characterizes composition of money income by sources of income.

Purchasing power of population money income quantity of goods (each separate) which coned be possible to be purchased for the sum of average per capita disposable money income of surveyed households of average prices at purchase.

Expenditure on final consumption refers to expenditure of households on purchases of foodstuffs, non-food products and alcoholic beverages as well as on consumer services. Expenditure which are not included in the category "Expenditure on final consumption" refers to taxes, fees, other compulsory payments, payments of debts, alimonies, assistance to relevants, fines and other expenditure not related to final consumption; also not included in final consumption expenditure are the outlays associated with productive activities of households (purchases of seeds, fodder, raw materials, etc.).

Dwellings put into operation (square meters of total living space) refer to completed by construction and put into operation in accordance with the established regulations of the following objects: permanent dwellings; hostels (including dormitories in general educational schools); non-residential units which have apartments. Not included are premises in hotels, dwellings and hostels designed for non-residential purposes (shops, drugstores, hairdressers, etc.). Dwellings put into operation classified by source of financing are subdivided into dwellings construction of which is financed from own funds of enterprises and organizations, households (individual constructors) and dwellings construction cooperatives.

Total stock of dwellings is the total number of apartments and rooms including subsidiary premises which are located in dwellings as well as in other buildings which have premises used for living (apartments for doctors in hospitals, apartments for teachers in schools, etc.).

Total dwelling stock does not include summer houses, summer garden structures and similar premises designated for seasonal or temporal living irrespective of duration of living in them by households.

Total dwelling stock is subdivided into four groups by major types of ownership: municipal property - dwellings owned by local government bodies; departmental property - dwellings owned by enterprises and organizations, collective farms and other cooperative organizations and assosiations; dwellings and dwelling-construction cooperatives property; individual (private) property - dwellings owned by individuals

Living housing space per person is computed as the ratio of the total living housing space to the number of inhabitants at the beginning of the year.

Number of privatized apartments refers to apartments which are privatized by selling them or giving them away free of charge. These are apartments which are contracted for sale or transfered to households (the contract between households and respective institutional unit, such as an enterprise, organization, collective farm, adminstrative body, is supposed to be registered in local government agency).

Number of educational institutions includes general schools, secondary specialized educational institutions, institutions of high education.

General educational schools refer to institutions which provide general training and facilitate multifacet cultural and physical development as well as esthetic education of children and youth. General schools carry out the educational process on the basis of single or several educational programmes. Depending on local conditions there can be primary, secondary and incomplete secondary schools. There can be state, municipal and private schools.

Secondary specialized educational institutions (colleges, technical schools) provide training and release specialists with secondary specialized education. They include technical schools (colleges) - industrial, construction, transport, agricultural, general economic, librarian; special professional schools - medical, pedagogical, theatrical, musical, dancing, general culture educational and so forth. Training of specialists in these institutions is carried out both for working and not working persons.

Secondary specialized educational institutions are classified by mode of training (day-time, evening, by correspondence) as well as by industrial grouping of educational units. Secondary specialized educational institutions can be state or private units.

Institutions of high education include institutions which carry out training of specialists of high qualification in accordance with the requirements of modern technology, science and culture. They include universities, training institutes, conservatories, training academies, high professional schools, etc.

They are grouped by mode of training both for working and non-working persons: day-time, evening and by correspondence.; by industrial groupings of institutions. There can be state and private institutions of high education.

Number of students attending educational institutions refers to the number of students attending general educational schools, secondary specialized educational institutions as well as institutions of high education; the students are registered as of the beginning of the school year. Data on the number of students obtained from the special statistical reports are grouped by territory, types of educational institutions, industrial groupings of educational institutions (universities and similar institutions of high education, secondary specialized educational institutions), urban and rural areas (schools), courses, sex, language of training and other.

The number of students admitted to educational institutions refers to the number of persons admitted to educational institutions in the given school year. This category does not include the persons who for some reasons had to repeat the training course as well as the number of persons who previously dropped out and then returned.

The number of persons graduated from educational institutions refers to the number of persons who completed a training course in educational institutions and received a profession. Graduates from secondary general schools receive a certificate which enables them to enter institutions of high education as well as secondary professional schools and similar secondary specialized educational institutions with reduced duration of training. Persons graduated from secondary specialized educational institutions and institutions of high education receive diploma and qualification in accordance with specialization.

Number of specialists engaged in R&D includes specialists with high and secondary specialized education (including postgraduates) who are directly engaged in R&D and employed in institutions which belong to the branch of economy "Science and scientific services", in scientific subdivisions and engineering development bureaus of industrial enterprises, in institutions of high education and other organizations; it also includes the leaders of scientific organizations and subdivisions. In addition, included is the scientific and teaching staff of institutions of high education who are not on the payroll of research and scientific institutions but carries out scientific and research works in accordance with the programme adopted by the institutions or on a contractual basis.

Network of medical institutions includes hospitals, dispensaries, clinics and profilactic institutions as well as polyclinics, ambulances, institutions for maternity and child care of all types of ownership.

The number of beds in hospitals and other medical institutions which are to be registered as of the end of the year refers to the beds properly equipped and ready to accept patients irrespective whether they are occupied or not. "Number of hospital beds per 10000 of population" is computed for characterizing availability of hospital beds on the basis of data on population at the end of the year.

The number of polyclinics includes all medical institutions which provide ambulatory treatment (polyclinics, ambulatories, dispensaries, medical units of various institutions, ambulatory sections of hospitals and so forth).

Capacity of ambulatories and polyclinics refers to the number of visits in one shift and is characterized with the help of the indicator "Capacity of ambulatories and polyclinics per 10000 of inhabitants".

Number of medical personnel includes doctors and paramedical staff of medical institutions of the Ministry of Health Care, other ministries and departments, organizations and enterprises of all types of ownership including private medical institutions which obtained the licence.

The total number of doctors includes the doctors with high medical education who are engaged at the end of the year in hospitals, clinics and similar medical institutions, social security institutions, medical research institutitons as well as in institutions engaged in training of medical personnel and in the Ministry of Health Care and similar government agencies. This indicator also includes dentists with both high and secondary specialized education. This number refers to the number of individuals and not to the number of jobs. For characterizing the availability of medical care "Number of doctors per 10000 population" and "Number of population per one doctor" are computed on the basis of data on population at the end of the year.

The total number of paramedical staff includes persons with medical secondary specialized education (other than dentists) engaged in hospitals, clinics and similar medical institutions, social security institutions, pre-school children institutions, schools and so forth. The indicators characterizing the availability of the paramedical personnel are computed similar to that for doctors.

Number of registered patients diagnosed for the first time by selected diseases. The ratio of this number to mid-year permanent population multiplied by 100000 is used as an indicator which shows the sick rate.

Data on the sick rate are grouped in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases.

Number of persons suffered from work accidents resulting in the loss of ability to work and death refers to the number of persons suffered from industrial accidents at the territory of an enterprise as well as during travelling to the work or from the work by the transport provided by the enterprise.

Number of persons registered as invalids for the first time is one of the indicators characterizing the state of health of population. It shows number of persons with permanent or durable loss of ability to work resulted from chronical disease or injury.

Emission of harmful pollutants in the air from stationery sources refers to total quantity of all pollutants emitted in the air by sources of pollution after the process of neutralization with the help of gas cleaning installations that did not result in complete neutralization and cleaning as well as without neutralization. Not included is air pollution resulting from soil erosion (dust storms), forest fires, etc.

Emission of pollutants is computed with respect to total volume of pollutants as well as by their types.

Use of water from natural sources refers to the volume of water resources obtained for consumption from surface water reservoires (rivers, lakes and seas) and from underground reservoires. It includes among other things water obtained in the process of extraction of mineral resources, water extracted in the process of construction, etc. Not included is the volume of water passed through hydro-electric stations, locks, structures designed for passing fish, maintening the necessary depth of water transportation ways, etc. Not included also is the volume of transit water directed to large channels, decentralised use of water extracted by population from wells including artesian ones, natural water reservoirs, etc.

Number of registered crimes - total and classified by selected types of crimes refers to officially registered socially dangerous deeds identified in the criminal legislation.

Commonwealth of Independent States in 1998: Statistical Yearbook/Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States. - M., 1999.